萨拉门多移民镇的历史区

来自中文百科专业版
跳转至: 导航搜索
乌拉圭:萨拉门多移民镇的历史区(Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento) 1
乌拉圭:萨拉门多移民镇的历史区(Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento) 2

  萨拉门多移民镇的历史区(Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento),位于乌拉圭最南端的半岛上,1680年在这里兴建了萨克拉门托移民镇。这个小镇的修建,是西班牙葡萄牙这两个殖民强国相互争斗的结果,镇上两种不同建筑风格奇异的揉合反映了它动荡的历史。1995年根据文化遗产遴选标准C(IV)被列入《世界遗产目录》。

基本信息

  • 中文名称:萨拉门多移民镇的历史区
  • 英文名称:Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento
  • 所属国家:乌拉圭
  • 入选时间:1995
  • 遴选依据:C (iv)
  • 地理位置:S34°28′ 4″ ,W57° 51′ 12″
  • 遗产编号:747 

世界遗产委员会评价

  1680年,葡萄牙人在拉普拉塔联邦兴建了萨拉门多小镇,起到了战略上防御西班牙帝国侵略的作用。经过一个世纪的争夺,小镇终于落在了西班牙人手中。萨拉门多保留了小镇的原貌,其建筑亦庄亦谐,整个小镇是葡萄牙、西班牙和已经成为历史的殖民地时代建筑风格的完美融合。

  殖民时期的纪念馆和起伏跌宕的历史为乌拉圭这个移民港口的老城区增姿添彩在阿根廷和乌拉圭之间,拉普拉塔河像楔子一般插入南美大陆。它的河口足有280公里宽。即便是在内陆,当巴拉那河乌拉圭河交汇时,河流的两岸也相距50公里。在乌拉圭最南端的半岛上,人们于1680年在大草原边缘兴建了萨克拉门托移民镇。这个小镇的修建,是西班牙和葡萄牙这两个殖民强国相互争斗的结果,镇上两种不同建筑风格奇异的揉合反映了它动荡的历史。也正是由于这些原因,这个镇在1995年12月被列入《教科文组织世界遗产名录》。

  萨克拉门托移民镇现在每年要接待上万名游客。但这个沉睡中的小镇还没有被喧闹和混乱的现代生活打破平静。在小镇的高处,晚上可望见布宜诺斯艾利斯闪烁的灯火。1680年,第一支西班牙远征军就是从布市出发,前来夺取葡萄牙人的要塞——萨克拉门托镇的。

  拉普拉塔河具有十分重要的战略意义。葡萄牙人和西班牙人为夺取对这条河的控制权而争斗了近一个世纪。沿巴拉那河和乌拉圭河航行几千公里后就到了拉普拉塔河河口,来自玻利维亚的宝石和兽皮,以及秘鲁的贵重金属,都通过这个河口运往欧洲。西班牙人和葡萄牙人也通过这条航线将货物从相反的方向运往——通常是走私——南美洲腹地。

  人们一般都认为,第一个驶入拉普拉塔河的西班牙航海家是1516年到来的胡安·迪亚斯·德索莱斯。之后,来自西班牙、英国法国荷兰的掠私船和海盗冒险也进入河口。这些人把牲畜放养在不知名的土地上,希望它们迅速繁殖,将来好大发横财。但当时葡萄牙人正试图把自己的地盘扩展到巴西南部,因而不久就与这些冒险家发生了冲突。1680年,葡萄牙摄政王堂·佩德罗命令兴建萨克拉门托移民镇。但是这一举动引起了西班牙人的不快。就在同一年,这个新建的小镇落到了西班牙人手中,尽管若阿纳·加尔旺在她奉命保卫要塞的丈夫去世之后,曾指挥军队英勇抵抗。此后,萨克拉门托由于和约和战争而数次易手,几乎每一次都遭到毁坏,然后又得以重建。直到18世纪上半叶,葡萄牙总督安东尼诺·德瓦斯康塞洛斯才有幸单独统治这个小镇达27年之久。在这段时期(1722-1749),镇上建起了不少精美的民用和军用建筑,使小镇增色生辉(这些建筑中幸存的部分至今仍令人仰慕不已)。萨克拉门托也步入了文化和商业的鼎盛时期,镇上的居民比西班牙人在1726年前后兴建的蒙得维的亚市的居民还多一倍。

  在60年代初,几名关心乌拉圭历史的热心人说服政府和镇委员会为保存老城区提供所需的财政和物质援助。一些房主也同意卖掉他们的房子。修复工作就这样开始了。

  1991年1月,一队考古学家找到了瓦斯康塞洛斯总督的宫殿所在的确切位置。这一发现和人们以后在遗址上所开展的工作,促使乌拉圭在蒙得维的亚建立了它的第一个历史考古学研究室。在国家遗产部工作的人类学家暨历史学家内尔西斯·赞贝尔托格莱里斯反对一切重建计划。她认为“应该让那些古老的石头呆在原处。我们不能篡改历史,除非是为了更好地展现历史。”

  夹在堡垒遗迹和现代化城市间的老城区包括以前葡萄牙人修建的小镇新桑蒂西莫·萨克拉门托。城中占地16公顷的建筑物风格各异,布局也很奇特。西班牙和葡萄牙殖民地的许多城镇都采用规整的棋盘式布局,但这个要塞的布局方式却是犬牙交错的。这由当地的地形所决定,而且也有助于挡风,因为拉普拉塔河上时常狂风大作。

  市长广场正对着拉普拉塔河。本世纪初,在广场上种植了五棵王棕和两棵雪松。广场上的公共花园和保存完好的宅邸使这里仍具有早期的田园风光。广场上的第180号建筑是葡萄牙博物馆。这幢普通的厚石墙房子里陈列着瓷砖、巴西花梨木(一种贵重的南美木材)家俱、服饰和厨房用具,无一不表明萨克拉门托镇同葡萄牙王国渊源已久。距此一箭之遥,一条名为叹息街的小路沿着缓坡一直通向河口。雨水落在凹凸不平的卵石路面上,顺着路中央的排水沟流走了,路两旁是18世纪初的农舍。西班牙博物馆距镇中心较远,那里陈列着这个镇上与西班牙有关的展览品和文件。

  镇上七个博物馆中,市政博物馆也许算得上是最有趣的一个。这里曾是爱尔兰海军上将威廉·布朗的宅邸,他是乌拉圭独立战争中的英雄。这家博物馆收集了有关该镇历史的最全面的陈列品。这里展示着用西班牙语和葡萄牙语撰写的50000多页文件,殖民时期的各种家俱、炮弹和动物标本,还有一些恰卢亚印第安人使用过的用具和武器。他们曾在这个地区狩猎、采集食物,后来遭到殖民者的屠杀和驱散。

  圣礼教堂是乌拉圭最古老的教堂。自从17世纪末修建以来,曾多次被毁。最严重的一次损坏发生在1823年,当时装炸药的圣器室爆炸了。虽然经过修复,教堂还是失去了原有建筑的统一风格。但教堂中殿保留着一些让人赞叹的艺术品,其中有一幅16世纪的圣坛背壁装饰画,一幅17世纪的圣家庭画和一尊用巴拉圭桃花心木雕刻的阿西西的圣方济各塑像。教堂唯一幸存的部分是它修建于1695年的廊柱。

  就在这座教堂和市长广场中间,考古学家成功地确定了葡萄牙总督瓦斯康塞洛斯宫殿的确切地址。宫殿本身早已荡然无存。但考古学家勘校了不少殖民时期的市政规划图,从而得以确定了外墙的位置,并在1000平方米的地面上重现了宫殿每一面墙和隔墙的布局。

  虽然人们已经对萨克拉门托镇进行了广泛的研究和挖掘,但这个古老的小镇仍没有泄露自己动荡历史中的全部秘密,有许多谜还有待考古学家去发现。

英文描述:Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento

Brief Description

Founded by the Portuguese in 1680 on the Río de la Plata, the city was of strategic importance in resisting the Spanish. After being disputed for a century, it was finally lost by its founders. The well-preserved urban landscape illustrates the successful fusion of the Portuguese, Spanish and post-colonial styles.

Long Description

The Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento bears remarkable testimony in its layout and its buildings to the nature and objectives of European colonial settlement, in particular during the seminal period at the end of the 17th century.

Dom Pedro, Prince Regent of Portugal, commissioned his chief minister Manuel Lobo, named Governor of Rio de Janeiro, in 1678 to found a settlement on the Río de la Plata, on the island of St Gabriel. Work began in 1680 and in 1690 Master Church and the Franciscan convent were built.

In 1704-5, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the town was razed to the ground after it was taken. Reconstruction began immediately, and by 1718 there were over 1,000 inhabitants. From the time that Antonio Pedro de Vasconcellos took over as Governor in 1722, Sacramento became the powerhouse of material, commercial and cultural development in the colony. The success of Sacramento as a commercial entrepot had a decisive influence on the development of Buenos Aires and its region.

The town changed hands again in 1762 when it was taken over by the Spanish, but returned to Portugal the following year, after yet another treaty was signed by the two rival powers. The successful siege of 1777 saw Sacramento definitively incorporated in the Spanish Empire under the terms of the treaty of San Ildefonso; part of the fortifications were dismantled and a few houses demolished, but the urban fabric for the most part survived. Between 1839 and 1851 the new nation was engaged in the 'Great War' against its neighbour, Argentina. What remained of its defences was finally demolished in 1859. However, much influence had passed to the national capital, Montevideo. The historical importance of Sacramento was first recognized in 1924, when there was an unsuccessful attempt to have part of the town designated a National Monument.

The old Portuguese town, Nova Colonia do Santissimo Sacramento, was built on the extreme west side of a peninsula near the Río de la Plata. The town itself was bounded by water on its north, west and south sides and to the east by the former lines of defensive walls and bastions.

Today the historic area is defined by the axis of Calle Ituzaingo. The range of buildings is wide in both time and style, and the town has preserved its urban layout and a remarkable collection of structures bearing witness to its more than three centuries of Portuguese, Spanish, and Uruguayan history. Its form is organic, adapted to the topography of the site. It also exercised an unquestioned influence on architectural development in colonial style on either side of the Río de la Plata, where there are examples of Portuguese influence. A number of distinguished Portuguese architects served the Portuguese state in the former Colonia del Sacramento.

The foundation of the town was in fact a somewhat delayed consequence of the claims of the two great colonial powers, Portugal and Spain, in South America, who competed for the power to export the riches of the mines in Peru and the fruits of the agricultural areas in Brazil.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC

Historical Description

On 8 October 1678 Don Pedro, Prince Regent of Portugal, commissioned his chief minister Manuel Lobe, named Governor of Rio de Janeiro, with founding a settlement on the Río de la Plata, on the island of St Gabriel. Work began in 1680, to the alarm of the Spaniards in Buenos Aires, who attacked and sacked the new town before the year was out. The so-called Provisional Treaty, signed in Lisbon in 1681, restored the town to Portugal, but prohibited any constructions beyond those already in place. The Portuguese returned in 1683, but the town did not begin to develop until the 1690s, which saw the erection of the Master Church and the Franciscan convent church.

In 1704-05, during the war of the Spanish succession, the growing town was besieged by the Spanish, to be razed to the ground after it was taken. The two powers signed in 1715 a Treaty of Friendship and Peace at Utrecht under the terms of which Portuguese sovereignty was not only recognized over Sacramento but also over the land surrounding it. Reconstruction began immediately, and by 1718 there were over a thousand inhabitants. From the time that Antonio Pedro de Vasconcellos took over as Governor in 1722 Sacramento became the powerhouse of material, commercial, and cultural development in the colony. lt was, for example, the starting point in the 1730s for the remarkable journeys of Cristovao Pereira de Abreu that opened up the routes to Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. The success of Sacramento as a commercial entrepot had a decisive influence on the development of Buenos Aires and its region, and played a role in the creation of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Aires. The town successfully withstood another Spanish siege in 1735-37, and when Vasconcellos retired after 27 years as Governor he saw it transformed into a strongly defended and prosperous community.

The town changed hands again in 1762, when it was taken over by the Spanish, but returned to Portugal the following year, after vet another treaty was signed by the two rival powers. The successful siege of 1777 saw Sacramento definitively incorporated in the Spanish empire under the terms of the Treaty of San lldefonso; part of the fortifications were dismantled and a few houses demolished, but the urban fabric for the most part survived. Spanish settlers moved into the town, mainly from Galicia, Asturias, Castile, and Leon. Sacramento was the scene of a number of the events that took place when revolutionary fervour led to the wars of independence. led by Jose Artigas from 1810 onwards. Full Independence was achieved in 1828, but not before grievous damage had been wrought on the Main Church by an explosion during a short period of Portuguese occupation. Between 1839 and 1851 the new nation was engaged in the "Great War" against its neighbor, Argentina, and Sacramento suffered from vet another bitter siege. What remained of its defences were finally demolished in 1859, and a period of judicious reconstruction and expansion began. However, much influence had passed to the national capital, Montevideo.

The historical importance of Sacramento was first recognized in 1924, when there was an unsuccessful attempt to nave part of the town designated a National Monument, with substantial controls over development and a generous allocation from the national budget. Subsequent attempts to protect the historic quality of the town failed again in 1929, 1938, and 1947.

来源:http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/747/

参考

  >>> 拉丁美洲和加勒比地区其他世界遗产